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Fact Sheets: Growing Multilingualism in the United States

U.S. English research has found that government agencies across the United States are increasing the number of languages in which services are offered. At the same time, however, the number of languages spoken by residents of the United States continues to grow.

New York City Transit (Metrocard) Machines (services in 9 languages):
Chinese, English, French, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish

Social Security Website (16 languages):
Arabic, Armenian, Chinese, English, Farsi, French, Greek, Haitian-Creole, Italian, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, Vietnamese

Department of the Treasury New $20 Bill Site (19 languages):
Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese (Mandarin), Czech, Dutch, English, French, French Canadian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese

Voting Ballots, as mandated by the Voting Rights Act (28 languages):
Alaskan Native (Other), Aleut, American Indian (Other), American Indian (Unspecified), Apache, Athabascan, Central/South American Indian, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chinese, Choctaw, Eskimo, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Navajo, Paiute, Pueblo, Seminole, Shoshone, Sioux, Spanish, Tohono O'dham, Ute, Vietnamese, Yaqui, Yuman, Zuni

Drivers License Exams in the United States (43 languages):
Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Burmese, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, English, Finnish, French, French Creole (Haitian Creole), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Lithuanian, Mandarin, Mon-Khmer (Cambodian), Panjabi, Perisan (Farsi, Dari), Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Russian, Samoan, Serbocroatian, Somali, Spanish, Tagalog, Thai, Tongan, Turkish, Ukranian, Vietnamese, Yiddish

Census 2000 Instruction Guides (50 languages):
Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Cambodian, Chamorro, Chinese, Creole, Croatian, Czech, Dari, Dinka, Dutch, English, Farsi, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Ilocano, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Kurdish, Lao, Polish, Portuguese, Romani, Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Serbian, Slovak, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Tagalog, Thai, Tibetan, Tigrinya, Tongan, Ukranian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Yiddish

Languages of Children in Maine Public Schools, 2002-03 (82 languages):
Acholi, Albanian, American Sign, Amharic, Arabic, Azarde, Basso, Bengali, Bulgarian, Burmese, Cebuano, Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese (Mandarin), Creole, Czech, Dari, Dinka, Dutch, English, Estonian, Ewondo, Farsi (Persian), French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Jamaican, Japanese, Khmer (Cambodian), Kingemulenge, Kinyarwanda, Korean, Kurdish, Lao, Latvian, Liberian, Lingala, Lithuanian, Maharti, Malay, Mandika, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian, Nuer, Nyanja, Pashto, Passamaquoddy, Patois, Penobscot, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slavik, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Taiwanese, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tigrinian, Tshiluba, Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Visayan

Languages of Children in Washington State Public Schools, 2001-02 (190 languages):
Acholi, Afrikaans, Aguacateco, Akan, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Athabascan, Azerbaijani, Bemba, Bengali, Bisaya, Bosnian, Bukusu, Bulgarian, Burmese, Byelorussian, Cakchiquel, Cambodian, Carolinina, Cebuano, Chagatai, Cham, Chamorro, Chao, Chechen, Chewa, Chinese (unspecified), Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese (Fukienese), Chinese (Mandarin), Chinese (Taiwanese), Chuckese, Chuuk, Columbia River Sahaptin, Creole, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dari, Dinka, Dire, Dutch, Egyptian-Arabic, English, Eritai, Estonian, Ethiopic, Farsi, Fijian, Finnish, French, Fula, Ga, Georgian, German, Golo, Greek, Gua, Guarani, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Hindi, Hindi-Urdu, Hmong, Hoh, Hungarian, Ibo, Icelandic, Igbo, Ilokano, Indonesian, Irula, Italian, Jamaican, Japanese, Kakwa, Kanjobal, Kazakh, Khmer, Kikuyu, Kinyarwanda, Kirgiz, Kmhmu, Kongo, Korean, Kosraean, Krio, Kru, Kurdish, Lao, Latvian, Liberian, Lingala, Lithuanian, Luganda, Macedonian, Makah, Malay, Malayalam, Manchu, Mandingo, Mano, Marathi, Marquesan, Marshallese, Mien, Mixteco, Mlabri, Moldavian, Mongolian, Muckleshoot, Navajo, Nepali, Nigerian, Norwegian, Nuer, Nyanja, Oriya, Oromo, Palau, Papago, Pashto, Pele-Ata, Pere, Persian, Philippine, Pilipino, Pima, Polish, Portuguese, Pulau, Punjabi, Puyallup, Quechua, Quileute, Quinault, Romansch, Rumanian, Russian, Sahaptian, Samoan, Sanskrit, Serbo-Croatian, Shona, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Soninke, Spanish, Squaxine, Sudanese-Arabic, Suri, Susu, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Taishan, Tamil, Tarasco, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Tigrinya, Toishanese, Tongan, Triqui, Trukese, Turkish, Twi, Ukranian, Urdu, Urian, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Wolof, Yakima, Yao, Yap, Yis, Yoruba, Zapoteco

Languages of U.S. Residents Recorded by the 1990 Census (328 languages):
Achinese, Achumawi, African, Afrikaans, Ahtena, Alabama, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian, American Indian, Amharic, Apache, Arabic, Arapaho, Arawakian, Arikara, Armenian, Assamese, Athapascan, Atsina, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Aztecan, Balinese, Balochi, Bantu, Basque, Bengali, Berber, Bielorussian, Bihari, Bikol, Bisayan, Blackfoot, Brahui, Bulgarian, Burmese, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cajun, Carolinian, Catalonian, Caucasian, Cayuga, Chadic, Cham, Chamorro, Chasta Costa, Chemehuevi, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibchan, Chinese, Chinook Jargon, Chiricahua, Chiwere, Choctaw, Clallam, Cocomaricopa, Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Comanche, Cree, Croatian, Crow, Cupeno, Cushite, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Delaware, Delta River Yuman, Diegueno, Dravidian, Dutch, Efik, English, Eskimo, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Finnish, Foothill No. Yokuts, Formosan, Fox, French, French Cree, French Creole, Frisian, Fuchow, Fulani, German, Gilbertese, Gondi, Greek, Gujarathi, Gullah, Gur, Haida, Hakka, Han, Havasupai, Hawaiian, Hawaiian Pidgin, Hebrew, Hidatsa, Hindi (Urdu), Hopi, Hungarian, Hupa, Icelandic, Ilocano, Indonesian, Inupik, Irish Gaelic, Iroquois, Italian, Jamaican Creole, Japanese, Javanese, Jicarilla, Kachin, Kalispel, Kannada, Kansa, Karachay, Karen, Karok, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Keres, Khoisan, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Kirghiz, Klamath, Koasati, Korean, Koyukon, Krio, Kru, Kuchin, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kusaiean, Kutenai, Kwakiutl, Ladino, Lapp, Lettish, Lithuanian, Luiseno, Lusatian, Luxembourgian, Macedonian, Makah, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Mandan, Mandarin, Mande, Maori, Mapuche, Marathi, Marquesan, Marshallese, Mayan Languages, Mbum (and Related), Melanesian, Menomini, Miami, Miao (Hmong), Miao-Yao, Micmac, Micronesian, Mikasuki, Minangkabau, Misumalpan, Mohave, Mohawk, Mokilese, Mon-Khmer (Cambodian), Mongolian, Mono, Mountain Maidu, Munda, Muong, Muskogee, Navaho, Nepali, Nez Perce, Nilo-Hamitic, Nilo-Sharan, Nilotic, Niuean, Nootsack, Northern Paiute, Norwegian, Nubian, Nukuoro, Ojibwa, Okanogan, Omaha, Oneida, Onondaga, Oriya, Osage, Other Athapascan-Eyak, Other Uralic Languages, Oto-Manguen, Ottowa, Paiute, Palau, Paleo-Siberian, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi, Papia Mentae, Pashto, Passamaquoddy, Patois, Pawnee, Pennsylvania Dutch, Penobscot, Persian, Picuris, Pidgin, Pima, Polish, Polynesian, Pomo, Ponapean, Ponca, Portuguese, Potawatomi, Provencal, Puget Sound Salish, Quapaw, Quechua, Quinault, Rajasthani, Rhaeto-Romanic, Romany, Rumanian, Russian, Sahaptian, Saharan, Salish, Samoan, San Carlos, Sandia, Sanskrit, Saramacca, Scottic Gaelic, Sebuano, Seneca, Serbian, Serbo-Croatian, Serrano, Shastan, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Sierra Miwok, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Siuslaw, Slovak, Slovene, Sonoran Nec, Spanish, Spokane, St. Lawrence Is. Yupik, Sudanese, Sudanic, Swahili, Swedish, Syriac, Tachi, Tagalog, Tamil, Tanaina, Tarascan, Telugu, Tewa, Thai (Laotian), Tibetan, Tillamook, Tiwa, Tlingit, Tokelauan, Tongan, Tonkawa, Towa, Trukese, Tsimshian, Tungus, Tupi-Guarani, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuscarora, Twana, Uighur, Ukrainian, Ulithean, Upper Chehalis, Upper Chinook, Ute, Vietnamese, Walapai, Washo, Welsh, Wichita, Winnebago, Wintun, Woleai-Ulithi, Wu, Yapese, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yiddish, Yuchi, Yuki, Yuma, Yupik, Yurok, Zuni

Languages Used to Code Data for Census 2000 (380 languages):
Abnaki, Achinese, Achumawi, Afrikaans, Ahtena, Alabama, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian, American Indian, Amharic (Tigrigna), Apache, Arabic, Arapaho, Arawakian, Arikara, Armenian, Assamese, Athapascan, Atsina, Atsugewi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Aztecan (Mexicano, Nahuatl), Balinese, Balochi, Bantu (Bembe, Kikuyu, Ndebele, Shona, Tonga, Xhosa, Zulu), Basque, Bengali, Berber, Bielorussian, Bihari, Bikol, Bisayan (Ilongo), Blackfoot, Brahui, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Burmese, Burushaski, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cajun, Cantonese, Carolinian, Catalonian, Caucasian (Georgian), Cayuga, Chadic, Cham, Chamorro, Chasta Costa, Chemehuevi, Cherokee, Chetemacha, Cheyenne, Chibchan, Chinese, Chinook Jargon, Chiricahua, Chiwere, Choctaw (Chickasaw), Chumash, Chuvash, Clallam, Coast Miwok, Cocomaricopa, Coeur D'Alene, Columbia, Comanche, Cowlitz, Cree, Croatian, Crow, Cupeno, Cushite (Somali), Czech, Dakota (Lakota, Ogala, Sioux), Danish, Delaware (Lenape), Delta River Yuman, Diegueno, Dravidian, Dutch, Efik, English, Eskimo, Estonian, Eyak, Faroese, Fijian, Finnish, Foothill North Yokuts, Formosan, Fox, French, French Cree, French Creole (Haitian Creole), Frisian, Fuchow, Fulani (Temne, Wolof), German, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Greek, Gujarathi, Gullah, Gur, Haida, Hakka, Han, Havasupai, Hawaiian, Hawaiian Pidgin, Hebrew, Hichita, Hidatsa, Hindi, Hopi, Hsiang (Kan), Hungarian, Hupa, Icelandic, Ilocano, Indonesian, Ingalit, Inupik, Irish Gaelic, Iroquois, Italian, Jamaican Creole, Japanese, Javanese, Jicarilla, Kachin, Kalispel, Kannada, Kansa, Karachay, Karakalpak, Karen, Karok, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawaiisu, Kazakh, Keres, Khosian, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Kirghiz, Klamath, Koasati, Korean, Koyukon, Krio, Kru (Ibo, Yoruba), Kuchin, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kusaiean, Kutenai, Kwakiutl, Ladino, Laotian, Lapp, Lettish (Latvian), Lithuanian, Lower Chehalis, Luiseno, Lusatian, Luxembourgian, Macedonian, Madurese, Makah, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Mandan, Mandarin, Mande, Maori, Mapuche, Marathi, Marquesan (Tahitian), Marshallese, Mayan Languages (Canjobal, Guatemalan, Maya, Quiche), Mbum, Melanesian, Menomini, Miami, Miao (Hmong), Miao-Yao, Micmac, Micronesian, Mikasuki, Minangkabau, Misumalpan, Mohave, Mohawk, Mokilese, Moluccan, Mongolian, Mon-Khmer (Cambodian), Mono, Mortlockese, Mountain Maidu, Munda, Muong, Muskogee (Creek, Seminole), Nauruan, Navaho (Navajo), Nepali, Nez Perce, Nilo-Hamitic, Nilo-Saharan, Nilotic, Niuean, Nomlaki, Nootka, Nootsack, Northern Paiute, Northwest Maidu, Norwegian, Nubian, Nukuoro, Ojibwa (Chippewa), Okanogan, Omaha, Oneida, Onondaga, Oriya, Osage, Ossete, Other African, Other Athapascan-Eyak, Other Uralic Languages, Oto-Manguen (Mixtec, Otomi, Zapoteca), Ottawa, Pachuco, Pacific Gulf Yupik, Paiute, Pakistan, Palau, Pampangan, Panamint, Pangasinan, Panjabi (Punjabi), Papia Mentae, Pashto, Passamaquoddy, Patois, Patwin, Pawnee, Pennsylvania Dutch, Penobscot, Perisan (Farsi, Dari), Picuris, Pidgin, Pima (Papago, Tohono O'Odham), Plains Miwok, Polish, Polynesian, Pomo, Ponapean, Ponca, Portuguese, Potawatomi, Provencal, Puget Sound Salish, Quapaw (Arkansas), Quechua, Quinault, Rajasthani, Rarotongan, Rhaeto-Romanic, Romany, Rumanian, Russian, Sahaptian, Saharan, Saint Lawrence Island Yupik, Salish, Samoan, San Carlos, Sandia, Sanskrit, Santiam, Saramacca, Scottic Gaelic, Sebuano, Seneca, Serbian, Serbocroatian (Bosnian, Slavic), Serrano, Shastan, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Siberian Languages, Sierra Miwok, Sindhi, Sinhalese (Maldivian), Siuslaw, Slovak, Slovene, Sonoran, Southern Maidu, Spanish, Spokane, Sudanese, Sudanic (Dinka), Swahili, Swedish, Syriac, Tachi, Tadzhik, Taglog (Filipino), Tamil, Tanacross, Tanaina, Tanana, Tarascan, Telugu, Tewa, Thai, Tibetan, Tillamook, Tiwa, Tlingit, Tokelauan, Tongan, Tonkawa, Towa, Trukese, Tsimshian, Tubatulabal, Tungus, Tupi-Guarani (Guarani), Turkish, Turkmen, Tuscarora, Tutchone, Twana, Uighur (Uzbek), Ukranian, Ulithean, Up River Yuman, Upland Yuman, Upper Chehalis, Upper Chinook, Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Tanana, Urdu, Ute, Vietnamese, Walapai, Wappo, Washo, Welsh, Wichita, Winnebago, Wintun, Wiyot, Woleai-Ulithi, Wu, Wyandot (Huron), Yakut, Yapese, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yiddish, Yuchi, Yuki, Yuma, Yupik, Yurok, Zuni

Language Backgrounds of Limited English Proficient Students in the U.S., 2000-01 (430 languages):
Abkhaz, Abnaki, Acholi, Achumawi, Afar, African Language (unspecified), Afrikaans, Aguacateco, Ahtena, Akan, Akaselem, Akha, Alabama, Albanian, Alemannisch, Aleut, Algonquin, Amharic (Ethiopian), Anuak, Apache, Arabic, Arapaho, Arawakan, Arikara, Armenian, Asian Language (unspecified), Assamese, Assiniboine, Assyrian (Syriac), Athapascan, Atoni (Timorese), Atsuwegi, Aymara, Azeri, Babanki, Bajpuri, Balante, Bali, Baluchi, Bambara, Bana, Bangpa, Baoule, Bari, Basque, Bassa, Bata, Bemba, Bengali, Berber, Bislama, Blackfoot, Brahui, Bulgarian, Buli, Burmese, Byelorussian (Belarusan), Caddo, Cahuilla, Cajun, Carolinian, Catalan, Cayuga, Cebuano (Bisayan), Chaldean, Cham, Chamorro, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chin, Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese (Hakka), Chinese (Mandarin), Chinese (Min Bei), Chinese (Min Nan), Chinese (unspecified), Chinese (Wu), Chinese (Xiang, Hunan, Hsiang), Chinook Jargon, Chitimacha, Choctaw, Chuj, Chumash, Chuukese, Chuvash, Couer D'Alene, Columbia, Comanche, Corsican, Cree, Creole/Patois (unspecified), Crow, Cup'ik, Cutchi, Czech, Dagbani, Dakota (Sioux), Dan, Danish, Degexit'an, Degha, Didinga, Dinka, Djarma, Dutch, Dzongkha, Ebira, Edo, Efik, English (Creolized), Estonian, Etsako, European Language (unspecified), Ewe, Ewondo, Eyak, Faroese, Farsi (Persian, Dari), Fijian, Finnish, Flemish, Fon-Gbe, Fox, French, French Cree, Frisian, Fulani Fulfulde, Fyer, Ga, Gaelic, Gagauz, Ganda, Garifuna, Gata, Gen-Gbe, Georgian, German, Gissi, Gokana, Gourmancema, Grebo, Greek, GrosVentre, Guarani, Guaymi, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian Creole, Han, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hichita, Hiligaynon (Illonggo), Hindi, Hindko, Hindustani, Hmong, Hopikachuk, Hopi, Hungarian, Hupa, Hutterite, Ibibio, Ibo, Icelandic, Idoma, Ikwere, Ilocano, Indonesian, Inuktitut (Inuit, Eskimo), Inupiak, Iowa-Oto, Isoko, Italian, Izon, Japanese, Jarai, Javanese, Jemez (Towa), Jju (Kaje), Jola-Fogny, Kabiye, Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean), Kakwa, Kalabari, Kalenjin, Kalispel, Kalmyk-Oirat, Kamba, Kanjoval, Kannada, Kansa, Kanuri, Kapingamarangi, Karachay, Karen, Karok, Kasem, Kashmiri, Kawaiisu, Kazakh, Kenya, Kenyang, Keres (Pueblo), Khana, Khasi, Khmer (Cambodian), Khmu, Khowar, Kickapoo, Kikuyu, Kili, Kiowa, Kirghiz, Kiribati, Koasati, Koho, Kongo, Konkani, Kono, Kootenai, Korean, Kosraean, Koyukon, Kpelle, Krahn, Krio, Kru, Kuchin, Kurdish, Kuskokwim, Kwakiutl, Lahu, Lakota, Lao (Laotian), Latvian (Lettish), Lebanese, Lezgi, Limbum, Lingala, Lithuanian, Loma, Luba-Kasai, Lugbara, Luiseno, Leo, Lushai (Mizo), Luxembourgish, Macedonian, Magha, Maidu, Maithili, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Malinke, Maltese, Mam, Mandan, Mandinka (Mande), Mano, Maori, Marathi, Marenje, Marshallese, Maya, Mende (Hulo, Kossa), Menomini, Meta, Micmac, Mien, Mikasuki, Mina, Miwok, Mixtec, Mohawk, Mongolian, Mono, Moore, Mortlockese, Muskogee (Creek, Seminole), Nahuatl (Aztec), Native American (unspecified), Nauru, Navajo (Dine), Ndebele, Ndonga, Nepali, Nez Perce, Ngemba (Mankon), Norwegian, Nuer, Nyanja (Chewa), Nyankore, Obanliku, Ojibwe (Chippewa, Ojibwa), Okanagan, Omaha (Ponca), Oneida, O'Odham (Papago, Pima), Oring, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Otomi, Pacific Language (unspecified), Paiute, Palauan, Palla, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Papiamento, Pashto, Passamaquoddy, Pawnee, Pennsylvania Dutch, Penobscot, Pingelapese, Pohnpeian (Ponapean), Polish, Portuguese, Potawatomi, Provencal, Punjabi, Quapaw (Arkansas), Quechan (Yuma), Quechua, Quiche, Rade, Rajasthani, Roma (Romany), Romanian (Moldovian), Romanish (Rhaeto-Romance), Rundi (Kirundi), Russian, Rwanda, Saami (Lapp), Sahaptian, Salish, Samoan, Sangho, Sapo, Saurashtra, Seneca, Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian), Seri, Shan, Shastan, Shawnee, Shina, Shoshoni, Sign Language, Sindhi, Singhalese, Siuslaw, Slovak Slovenian (Slovene), Somali, Songhay, Sonsorol, Sotho (Northern Sotho), Sotho (Southern Sotho), Spanish, Sudanese, Sukuma, Sundanese (Sunda), Susu, Swahili, Swazi (Siswati), Swedish, Tagalog (Filipino), Tahitian, Tajik, Tamil, Tampulma, Tanacross, Tanaina, Tanana, Tanana (Upper Tanana), Tarascan, Telugu, Thai, Themne, Tibetan, Tigre (Khasa), Tigrinya (Tigrigna), Tiv, Tiwa, Tlingit, Tobian, Toishan, Tonga, Tongan, Tsimshian, Tswana, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuscarora, Tuvaluan, Uduk, Ukranian, Ulithian, Upland Yuman (Walapai, Yavapai), Upper Chinook, Urdu, Urhobo, Uyghur (Uigur), Uzbek, Vai, Vietnamese, Wandala, Waray-Waray, Washo, Welsh, Wichita, Wintun (Patwin), Wolof, Yakima, Yapese, Yiddish, Yombe, Yoruba, Yup'ik, Yurok, Zande, Zapoteco, Zulu, Zuni

Languages above have been entered exactly as offered. No attempt has been made to correlate spellings, language dialects, etc. between different categories.

Sources:

  • State of New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Oct. 15, 2003;
  • Social Security Administration website, http://www.ssa.gov/multilanguage/index.htm, Jan. 14, 2004;
  • Department of the Treasury website, http://www.moneyfactory.com/newmoney/, Jan. 14, 2004
  • U.S. Department of Justice.
  • Replies from Department of Motor Vehicle offices of all 50 states, Summer 2003
  • U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census website, http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/genfaq.htm#language, Jan. 14, 2004
  • Maine Department of Education, Native Languages Spoken by LEP Children in Maine Schools, 2002-2003, http://www.state.me.us/education/esl/data2003/eslp13.txt
  • Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Educating English Language Learners in Washington State - December 2003, http://www.k12.wa.us/research/default.aspx
  • U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Economic and Social Stratification Branch, 1990 Census Special Tabulation, "Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English For United States, Regions and States: 1990."
  • U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Language Code List, http://factfinder.census.gov/metadoc/language.pdf
  • National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, Language Backgrounds of Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students in the U.S. and Outlying Areas, 2000-2001, http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/states/index.htm

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